International trade is regarded as the backbone of the global economy. It is an undeniable fact that it has a positive impact on all concerned. Yet, concrete experiences show that rural poverty and environmental degradation are on the increase in many countries. Small-scale producers in the north and south are losing access to land, water, seed – and markets. Biological and cultural diversity in agriculture are dwindling away. The number of winners in the food industry pales into insignificance compared with the number of losers, which include the consumer. Depending on agricultural imports can have devastating effects, for example when prices skyrocket and countries are no longer in a position to purchase staple foods to feed their own people. For this reason, agricultural trade must take a backseat to social and ecological criteria.